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Opthalmology

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease that destroys the optic nerves that reflect images to the brain. Glaucoma arises due to an increase in the intraocular pressure. The disease develops over the years showing no initial symptoms. Later with time, the person may suffer from blurred vision, headache, eye pain and redness in the eyes. Glaucoma is one of the major reasons for blindness across the globe and all types of glaucoma need immediate treatment. Glaucoma can lead to complete vision loss if not treated.

Types of glaucoma

Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common type of glaucoma that develops slowly and is a lifetime condition. The symptoms are unnoticeable owing to the gradual development of the disease. In open-angle glaucoma, eye pressure increases because of the fluid collected inside the eye. Open-angle glaucoma blocks vision from the drainage canal creating a vignette vision, which narrows with time.

Angle-closure glaucoma: Angle-closure glaucoma is a quickly forming and rare form of glaucoma. In this type, a narrow angle develops between the iris and cornea. Unlike open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma develops quickly and shows symptoms like high eye pressure, eye pain, nausea, headache and blurred vision. Once you have any of these symptoms, you should consult an ophthalmologist immediately.

Normal-tension glaucoma: In normal-tension glaucoma, the optic nerves are destroyed even though the eye pressure levels are normal. This glaucoma can be diagnosed using two tests—with the ophthalmoscope or the visual field test. Though the cause for normal-tension glaucoma is unknown, this glaucoma is curable.

Congenital glaucoma: Congenital glaucoma occurs at an early age and is found in babies or toddlers. It is caused by faulty development of the drainage system before birth. It presents symptoms such as cloudy eyes, eye pain, big and unusual eyes and irritation from light. In some cases, surgery and medication can restore the child’s vision while in others only a surgery can help.

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